O testemunho das mulheres

Naquele tempo, em Israel, o testemunho das mulheres não podia ter valor oficial, jurídico, mas elas viveram uma experiência de ligação especial com o Senhor, que é fundamental para a vida concreta da comunidade cristã, e isto para sempre, em todas as épocas, não só no início do caminho da Igreja

Bento XVI

Segundo Richard Carrier in Not the Impossible Faith location: 4601

Torah Law contains no prohibition against women even appearing in court (and most Jewish sects rejected all law but Torah), while Mishnah Law specifically did not include women in its list of those unqualified to testify (Mishnah, Sanhedrin 3:3). Even under Talmudic interpretation “women are admitted as competent witnesses in matters within their particular knowledge,” especially “for purposes of identification” and “in matters outside the realm of strict law.”

The Coronation of Queen Esther, from the 1617 Scroll of Esther from Ferrara, Italy.
Institution: National Library of Israel, Jerusalem

“… the Mishnah’s framers grant women the right to bring and defend a lawsuit,” and “the sages acknowledge both a woman’s mental competence and the reliance to be placed on her oath and testimony.” Their “assessment of a woman’s ability to give a truthful and accurate account reflects their recognition that her mental and moral capacities resemble those of a man.” Though, as for Romans and Greeks, it was unseemly for a woman to appear and speak in public, her testimony could be delivered by a male representative. That is why “the list of intrinsically incompetent witnesses makes no mention of women,” and there are many cases on record where the testimony of women was accepted, even under oath.[17] Rather, most objections to a woman testifying were based on principles of modesty, not a lack of trust. As the Talmud puts it (b.Gittin 46a), some Rabbis held that “a man should not mind the indignity of his wife appearing in court,” while others held that “a man is averse to subjecting his wife to the indignity of appearing in court.” Obviously, this debate only makes sense if it was legal for a woman to appear in court.